An Introduction to Cognitive Psychology: Processes and by David Groome

By David Groome

Instantaneously obtainable and leading edge, An advent to Cognitive Psychology is a uniquely entire textbook for undergraduate scholars. in one quantity, it offers truly signposted chapters on either common cognitive functionality and comparable scientific issues. specially written to hide all degrees of skill, it deals in-depth and updated learn to entice the main capable scholars, with a transparent and fascinating textual content written through skilled academics to assist scholars who locate the cloth tricky. in particular designed textbook positive aspects comprise bankruptcy summaries, annotated additional examining and a thesaurus of key words.

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3, a simple line drawing to which most observers appear to add their own concept of a ‘face’. This is an example of top-down processing, which will be considered below. Top-down and bottom-up processing As mentioned in Chapter 1, top-down processing, or conceptually driven processing, is processing which makes use of stored knowledge and expectations in order to guide the interpretation of a visual stimulus. Bottom-up, or data-driven, processing on the other hand is processing based on the applications of processing rules to the data present within the stimulus in a way that does not depend upon such previous experience.

D’ or ‘K’ to make ‘WORD’ or ‘WORK’). A 10 per cent improvement in performance accuracy was found if the letter was part of a word as compared to when it was a non-word or a single letter. Performance was about the same in the latter two cases. Subsequent experiments have also indicated an object superiority effect (Biedermann, 1977) for objects that form part of a coherent scene as compared with ones forming part of a jumbled scene. Local and global relationships Experiments by Navon (1977) suggest that it may actually be the norm to process the global attributes of a stimulus before the local detail, in direct contradiction to the bottom-up view.

Individuals with visual field impairments may be aware of what they see because involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) occur and these cover for the blindspots. Cortical blindness results from damage to the primary visual cortex of the brain. It can result in the inability to distinguish forms and patterns but the patient may still have awareness of light. Primary visual processing Primary visual processing occurs in the primary visual cortex which is in the occipital lobe of the brain. It is also referred to as striate cortex.

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