Africa. An Encyclopedia for Students. Ecosystems - Laws by John Middleton

By John Middleton

Supplying a finished examine the continent of Africa and the nations that contain it, this ebook describes its peoples and cultures, song and artwork, alternate and financial system, vacations and fairs, tribal teams, ecology, faith, fossil and skeleton discoveries, the land and its historical past, artwork and structure and way of life. It examines Africa from prehistoric instances to the current day.

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King Menilek of Shewa at first refused, but he joined when Yohannes brought military force against him. Another challenge came in 1885, when Italians landed troops in Eritrea. Yohannes succeeded in confining them to the coastal regions. In 1889 he was shot and killed in Sudan, where he had gone to put down attacks along the border. The Reign of Menilek. Soon after the death of Yohannes, Menilek declared himself emperor. He quickly signed a treaty of trade and friendship with the Italians, but he later learned that the Italians believed that the treaty made Ethiopia a colony of Italy.

This led to widespread smuggling of oil across Nigeria’s borders by private citizens, causing producers to lose profits. The smuggling problem got worse and eventually contributed to an oil shortage in Nigeria, even though that country is a major producer of petroleum. However, national governments are not in full control of their countries’ energy supplies and policies. As in the colonial era, much of Africa’s oil reserves and production facilities are owned by corporations based in North America and Europe.

Since achieving independence in 1993, outbreaks of fighting with Ethiopia have hampered efforts to rebuild the nation. From Ancient Kingdom to Free Nation. D. 300, Eritrea was part of ancient AKSUM and the Ethiopian kingdom. However, it enjoyed some autonomy* until the 1500s, when it came under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Over the next centuries, Eritrea changed hands several times. Then in 1889 a treaty between Italy and Ethiopia declared the territory an Italian colony. Eritrea remained under Italian rule until 1941, when Italy lost its African colonies in World War II.

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