Advanced CMOS process technology by J. M. Pimbley

By J. M. Pimbley

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Wit h hydrophili c solid s it is a repulsion . Fo r example , silic a sols are stil l rathe r stabl e at pH 2, althoug h thi s is th e poin t of zer o charge . Perhap s the surfac e -SiO H group s can be regarde d as hydrated , influencin g wate r structur e for severa l molecula r diameters . A differen t typ e of structura l alteratio n occur s nea r hydrophobi c surfaces , for thes e apparentl y attrac t on e another . Thes e structura l component s of disjoinin g pressure s ar e superimpose d on th e dispersio n an d double laye r components .

Bu t fine-grinding of an or e in wate r may set off new processe s throug h dissolution , hydrolysis , ad sorption , oxidatio n or colloida l interaction . Th e activ e surface s of freshl y crushe d crystal s may adsor b ion s from slightl y solubl e constituents ; for example , a trac e of Pb 2+ comin g from oxidizin g galen a may be sufficien t to "activate " silicat e toward s flotation reagents . A trac e of hydrolyzin g Fe 3+ ions , comin g from stee l grindin g balls , ha s bee n know n to depres s th e zet a potentia l of quart z an d colloida l ferri c oxid e readil y deposit s ont o sulphid e minera l grains .

In orde r to obtai n suc h an expressio n th e easies t cas e to conside r is tha t of a perfec t monolaye r in contac t wit h a perfec t solutio n [5,11,12] . Treatin g th e interfacia l laye r as a monolaye r is a commo n practic e to simplif y th e situation . Th e monolaye r is locate d in betwee n the two bul k phases . Th e Gibb s dividin g plan e is place d betwee n the surfac e laye r and on e of th e bul k phases . In the monolaye r a partia l mola r are a ai of specie s / can be define d as: (48) For a perfec t monolaye r a t is equa l to th e are a occupie d by on e mol e of 1, af 9 whic h is independen t of th e surfac e composition .

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