A Teacher's Guide to Encounters in the New World: A History by M. Martin O'Shea

By M. Martin O'Shea

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Self-monitoring is necessary during all of these operations. Speakers must systematically control the link between their own intention and their internal and overt speech. De Bot (1992) proposes a bilingual speech production model based on Levelt’s work, the principal difference between the two being that de Bot’s model attempts to explain the selection or non-selection and the activation or non-activation of the speaker’s known languages. Following Green (1986), de Bot assumes three levels of activation: selected, activated and dormant.

Eubank, 1994; Vainikka & Young-Scholten, 1994; White, 1996). The majority of studies conducted within the UG framework focus on learners whose interlanguage is highly grammaticalised. Within this perspective, the term ‘L2 initial state’ is introduced in a special issue of Second Language Research in which Schwartz and Sprouse (1996) propose the Full Transfer/Full Access (FT/FA) hypothesis. They claim that the L1 grammar is the L2 initial state: This means that the starting point of L2 acquisition is quite distinct from that of L1 acquisition: in particular, it contends that all the principles and parameter values as instantiated in the L1 grammar immediately carry over as the initial state of a new grammatical system on first exposure to input from the target language.

VanPatten (2000) proposes four 20 Part 1: Theoretical Preliminaries principles for his model. Firstly, learners process input for meaning before form and lexical items before grammatical items. Consequently, priority is given to morphological items with higher communicative value. Secondly, for learners to treat form, the processing of the informational or communicative content must not pose a problem. 6 Learners will adopt other processing strategies once their developing linguistic system has incorporated new phenomena, such as case marking and acoustic stress (the Competition Model introduced in the second section of this chapter addresses similar questions).

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