By David Thurmond
Rome was once in a position to help a major city inhabitants by means of offering it with the rudiments of human nutrients within the kind of processed meals. This quantity features a cautious research of these nutrition strategies. The paintings is geared up at the foundation of the presumed value of these meals, starting with the so-called Mediterranean Triad of cereals (particularly wheaten bread), olive oil and wine, then facing plant items resembling legumes, greens and culmination, then animal items, and finishing with the condiments (salts, sugars, acids, spices) that have been themselves the brokers for the protection of alternative meals. The paintings combines research of literary and archaeological facts from antiquity with that of conventional comparative practices and smooth meals technology.
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Extra resources for A Handbook of Food Processing in Classical Rome: For Her Bounty No Winter (Technology and Change in History) (Technology and Change in History)
43 Rickman (1971): 293–7. 32 chapter one environment for the huge quantities of grain necessary to feed Rome’s population. Hermansen44 estimates a grand total of 33,300 square meters of storage potential at Ostia, a ﬁgure that would represent 32,190 tons of grain. The grain import from Egypt and Africa is recorded as 60 million modii per year45 which equals 390,000 tons, a ﬁgure Hermansen ﬁnds suspect. 25% of Rome’s annual import from Egypt and Africa in the ﬁrst century CE. Hermansen estimates the facilities at Portus would accommodate an additional 14,500–19,400 tons (depending on assumptions concerning depth of storage) and thinks that Romans continued to use some storage space at Puteoli as well.
At right angles to these sockets on the sides of the bosses are small holes for doweling the timber securely in place. From artistic representations we see that these timbers are part of a yoke-like frame which bisects the catillus across its top and is ﬁtted around its sides such that it somewhat resembles a lyre. 84 These same reliefs show us the mills in operation. A donkey (occasionally a horse is shown. Either this is artistic license or such horses were about ready for the knacker’s yard; horses were the expensive sports cars of the ancient world) is yoked to the mill and travels around it counterclockwise while a slave stands nearby with a whip to goad him.
89 In only one case do we have evidence that an aqueduct was constructed exclusively for the purpose of operating water mills, and this is at Barbegal, to be discussed below. 90 Tide mills, for which daily tides are used to ﬁll reservoirs with sea water, are attested at two sites, 88 Wikander (2000): 371–78. Cf. Wikander (1979): 15–24; M. Bell, “An Imperial Flour Mill on the Janiculan,” in Le ravitaillement en blé de Rome et des centres urbaines des débuts de la République jusqu’au Haut Empire (Naples: Centre Jean Bérard, 1994): 73–89.