By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
A successor to A Geologic Time Scale 1989 (Cambridge, 1990), this quantity introduces the idea and technique in the back of the development of the hot time scale, ahead of featuring the dimensions itself in vast aspect. a global crew of over 40 stratigraphic specialists develops the main up to date foreign stratigraphic framework for the Precambrian and Phanerozoic eras. a wide wallchart (not to be had for publication) summarizing the time scale in the back of the booklet completes this priceless reference for researchers and scholars.
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Extra resources for A Geologic Time Scale 2004
5 Albian Albian 108 Aptian Jurassic Aptian 124 135 131 130±3 Valanginian Valanginian 138 140 131 Late Jurassic 138 Berriasian Berriasian 144 144 145 Tithonian 150 150 150±3 Kim. Kim. 166 Bajoc. 170 156 Callovian Middle Jurassic 176 178±4 Bajocian 181 Aalenian Aalenian 187 188 Toarcian 194 Pliensbach. 200 200 Triassic Triassic Sinemur. 7 Kim. 6 152 141 Kim. 0 Toarcian Toarcian Pliensbach. 6(b) Comparison at the stage level of selected Mesozoic time scales with GTS2004. 1 Norian 160 Callovian Norian Norian 150 Bathonian Bathonian 187 Rhaet.
As elaborated by one of the major champions of practical and rational thinking in stratigraphic standardization (Hedberg, 1976, p. 03 Polarity Chron Radiolaria Stage Epoch Calc. Nannopl. AGE (Ma) PA RT I I N T RO D U C T I O N Plankt. Foram. 22 Chronostratigraphy: linking time and rock achieve a better deﬁnition of its units and horizons so that each will have a standard ﬁxed-time signiﬁcance, and the same time signiﬁcance for all geologists everywhere. Most of the named international chronostratigraphic (geochronology) units still lack precise globally accepted deﬁnitions and consequently their limits are controversial and variably interpreted by different workers.
The standardization advocated by Hedberg and other stratigraphers has been the major task of ICS through application of the principle of boundary stratotypes; the current status of this application is actively maintained in the ofﬁcial website of ICS. The traditional stratigraphic scale using stage stratotypes has evolved into a standard chronostratigraphic scale in which the basal boundary of each stage is standardized at a point in a single reference section within an interval exhibiting continuous sedimentation.